Alternatively spliced transcripts and novel pseudogenes of the Plasmodium falciparum resistance-associated locus pfcrt detected in East African malaria patients

Gadalla, Nahla B, Malmberg, Maja, Adam, Ishag, Oguike, Mary C, Beshir, Khalid, Elzaki, Salah-Eldin, Mukhtar, Izdihar, Gadalla, Amal A, Warhurst, David C, Ngasala, Billy, others: Alternatively spliced transcripts and novel pseudogenes of the Plasmodium falciparum resistance-associated locus pfcrt detected in East African malaria patients. In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 70 (1), pp. 116–123, 2015.

Abstract

Objectives Polymorphisms in the lysosomal transporter encoded by the pfcrt gene directly impact on Plasmodium falciparum susceptibility to aminoquinolines. The Lys76Thr mutation is the critical change conferring chloroquine resistance in vitro and in vivo, but always occurs with additional non-synonymous changes in the pfcrt coding sequence. We sought to better describe pfcrt polymorphisms distal to codon 76.

Methods Small-volume samples (≤500 μL) of parasite-infected blood collected directly from malaria patients presenting for treatment in Sudan and Tanzania were immediately preserved for RNA extraction. The pfcrt locus was amplified from cDNA preparations by nested PCR and sequenced directly to derive full-length mRNA sequences.

Results In one of two sites in Sudan, two patients were found with an unorthodox spliced form of pfcrt mRNA in which two exons were skipped, but it was not possible to test for the presence of the putative protein products of these aberrant transcripts. Genomic DNA sequencing from dried blood spots collected in parallel confirmed the presence of spliced pfcrt pseudogenes in a minority of parasite isolates. Full-length cDNA from conventionally spliced mRNA molecules in all study sites demonstrated the existence of a variety of pfcrt haplotypes in East Africa, and thus provides evidence of intragenic recombination.

Conclusions The presence of pseudogenes, although unlikely to have any direct public health impact, may confound results obtained from simple genotyping methods that consider only codon 76 and the adjacent residues of pfcrt.

BibTeX (Download)

@article{gadalla2015alternatively,
title = {Alternatively spliced transcripts and novel pseudogenes of the Plasmodium falciparum resistance-associated locus pfcrt detected in East African malaria patients},
author = {Gadalla, Nahla B and Malmberg, Maja and Adam, Ishag and Oguike, Mary C and Beshir, Khalid and Elzaki, Salah-Eldin and Mukhtar, Izdihar and Gadalla, Amal A and Warhurst, David C and Ngasala, Billy and others},
url = {http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/content/70/1/116.short},
year  = {2015},
date = {2015-01-01},
journal = {Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy},
volume = {70},
number = {1},
pages = {116--123},
publisher = {Br Soc Antimicrob Chemo},
abstract = {Objectives Polymorphisms in the lysosomal transporter encoded by the pfcrt gene directly impact on Plasmodium falciparum susceptibility to aminoquinolines. The Lys76Thr mutation is the critical change conferring chloroquine resistance in vitro and in vivo, but always occurs with additional non-synonymous changes in the pfcrt coding sequence. We sought to better describe pfcrt polymorphisms distal to codon 76.

Methods Small-volume samples (≤500 μL) of parasite-infected blood collected directly from malaria patients presenting for treatment in Sudan and Tanzania were immediately preserved for RNA extraction. The pfcrt locus was amplified from cDNA preparations by nested PCR and sequenced directly to derive full-length mRNA sequences.

Results In one of two sites in Sudan, two patients were found with an unorthodox spliced form of pfcrt mRNA in which two exons were skipped, but it was not possible to test for the presence of the putative protein products of these aberrant transcripts. Genomic DNA sequencing from dried blood spots collected in parallel confirmed the presence of spliced pfcrt pseudogenes in a minority of parasite isolates. Full-length cDNA from conventionally spliced mRNA molecules in all study sites demonstrated the existence of a variety of pfcrt haplotypes in East Africa, and thus provides evidence of intragenic recombination.

Conclusions The presence of pseudogenes, although unlikely to have any direct public health impact, may confound results obtained from simple genotyping methods that consider only codon 76 and the adjacent residues of pfcrt.},
keywords = {alternative splicing, chloroquine resistance, malaria, transporters},
pubstate = {published},
tppubtype = {article}
}